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Expédition YellowStone de août 2010

Sur cette page, vous trouverez la mise à jour des aventures quotidiennes vécues par les participants et les participantes inscrits sur l’expédition de 2010.







15 adolescentes et adolescentes sont partis s’entraîner à la pratique de l’anglais dans le cadre d’un séjour linguistique de journalisme scientifique, sur le thème, ici, de la géologie et de la biodiversité (Parc de YellowStone oblige !).

Vous trouvez ci-dessous les nouvelles quotidiennes au fur et à mesure de leur publication.





















Rencontres de l’Excellence !
Chaque automne, les jeunes âgés de 13 à 22 ans bénéficient d’un séjour hors du commun durant lequel les participants et les participantes bénéficient d’ateliers de haut niveau habituellement réservés aux adultes. Pour en savoir, suivez ce lien dédiés aux Rencontres de l’Excellence


 Vendredi 13 août


Les premières nouvelles,

Sandrine (la principale responsable de la mise en place de cette expédition) est à Jackson, l’une des voitures de location est entre ses mains et elle va dès demain parcourir le chemin qu’ils prendront avec les participants, elle repère les possibilités pour les courses, les sites wifi (celui dont Sandrine se sert est payant, mais il doit bien y avoir des astuces...).

Tout se passe pour le mieux, la région du grand téton est magnifique !

C’est l’équipe du Centre de Séjours Scientifiques Europe qui poste ce message (Cela semble trop compliqué de l’endroit où Sandrine se trouve, les sites français ne fonctionnent pas correctement semble-t-il.).

 Samedi 14 août

Bonjour,

De retour du parc du Yellowstone, dans lequel elle a passé la nuit (il fait assez froid), chaud la journée par beau temps, bref, le temps de montagne, Sandrine confirme qu’il n’y a pas de wifi ....

 Dimanche 15 août

Les différents participants ont été accueillis à l’aéroport, excepté Julie qui a manqué sa correspondance à Minéapolis et doit donc rester dormir sur place pour prendre un autre vol demain matin et Thomas J. qui arrivera aussi demain par un autre vol. Malgré des bagages non-arrivés pour les participants venants du Québec et pour Bastien, l’aventure camping a commencé pour l’équipe expéditionnaire dans le parc du Grand Téton.

 Lundi 16 août

Nous avons eu Maël, l’un des accompagnateurs, au téléphone, même si la première nuit a pu paraitre fraiche, ils prenaient un bon petit déjeuner pour bien commencer la journée. Tout allait bien pour les premiers arrivés.

2 voitures vont partir pour Yellowstone de manière à préparer le camps pour l’arrivée de la 3e voiture une fois que Julie et Thomas J. auront été accueillis.

Ensuite il faudra attendre le 21 ou 22 aout (décalage horaire de 8 heures oblige). Les participants écriront leur carnet de bord chaque jour et nous retransmettrons tout cela dès qu’ils auront accès de nouveau à internet en sortant du parc (sortie ouest).

A bientôt.

L’équipe du Centre de Séjours Scientifiques Europe

 Mardi 17 août

Ca y est, tout le monde est là, mais il manque encore un sac. La compagnie aérienne nous a aidé à racheter quelques affaires.
Les journées sont chaudes et les nuits sont fraiches, et tout le monde est de bonne humeur. Un peu de pluie hier, mais sinon beau soleil.
Nous sommes au parc du Grand Teton et devrions êtres à Yellowstone ce soir.
Sacrée logistique pour déplacer tout ce monde là, heureusement chacun y met du sien.
Niveau de la grande faune nous avons déjà croisé de nombreux bisons, un orignal (élan),et un grand daim, et beaucoup d’autres devraient suivre.

Valérian (l’animateur)

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Rencontres de l’Excellence !
Chaque automne, les jeunes âgés de 13 à 22 ans bénéficient d’un séjour hors du commun durant lequel les participants et les participantes bénéficient d’ateliers de haut niveau habituellement réservés aux adultes. Pour en savoir, suivez ce lien dédiés aux Rencontres de l’Excellence



Chaque automne, les jeunes âgés de 13 à 22 ans bénéficient d’un séjour hors du commun durant lequel les participants et les participantes bénéficient d’ateliers de haut niveau habituellement réservés aux adultes. Pour en savoir, suivez ce lien dédiés aux Rencontres de l’Excellence

 Samedi 21 août

Nous voilà de retour dans la civilisation et internet pour une après-midi. Temps au beau fixe le jour et nuits glaciales, on annonce même de la neige !
En plus de tous les geysers et sources chaudes, nous avons ajouté coyote et wapitis à notre tableau de chasse (photographique).

Ci dessous, vous retrouverez les premiers reportages sur les geysers.


 Regularity and height of geysers

There exist many kinds of geysers, each one has its own debit and their eruptions are regular or not.

We can distinguish several kinds of geysers with these criterions. First, let’s focus on the Old Faithful.

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Knowing certain characteristics of its last eruptions, we can predict the next one with a good precision. The rangers gave us a document showing the data they use (Table Old Faithful 18.08). The main clue is the duration of each eruption. After a short one (2 minutes), we wait about one hour, and after a longer one (3 or 4 minutes), we wait about one hour and half.
Another interesting information is the height. Why are there two kinds of eruptions ? The rangers explained us that they are not sure, but there may be two chambers in the plumbing system of the Old Faithful instead of one. So, when there is only one full chamber during the eruption, this is a short eruption. And as the other chamber is partially full, the next eruption takes place after only one hour.

PredictionPre-playstartheightdurationinterval
7H52 7H47 7H50 STEAM 4 mn 00
9H23 9H14 9H33 135 2 mn 02 103
10H33 10H27 10H38 130 3 mn 44 65
12H11 12H08 12H34 120 3 mn 50 116
14H07 13H59 14H03 125 4 mn 11

Something strange is that ten years ago, there were as many short eruptions as long ones. Today, there is only one or two short eruption a day.

Five other geysers have predictable eruptions, but they are more simple because they have only one chamber. But most geysers aren’t predictable, because several geysers share one chamber. Finally, we wondered if there were geysers with permanent eruptions.

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A permanent “geyser” with less high “eruptions” but without break

Actually, there aren’t called “geysers”, but often, that kind of phenomena can exist in an ancient geyser whose constriction has been eroded. The constriction of a geyser is a narrow way, just over the chamber, where an eruption begins when the water reaches it. Because of that erosion, the water can erupt every time.

As a conclusion we can’t predict the height and time of a geyser eruption except for a few of them. Even for these ones we make many mistakes. So we can’t answer our question, but the water runoff is probably one of the causes of the differences between two eruptions.

Grompf group : François, Karl, Bastien, Julie


 Humans and geysers

There are 3 million visit in Old Faithful in the Yellowstone national park each year...
Do they always respect geysers and springs ? If they don’t , what are the consequences of their differents acts ?

Acording to the visitor center’s staff, in the past people were washing clothes in hot springs and that even now people were throwing coins into geysers. All this actions may damage thermal features or may change a hot spring into a geyser, for exemple the Solitary geyser was a spring but when men dicided to pump it to have hot water it’s became a geyser.

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Nearly all visitors know that human activities may damage or destroy thermal features but there are some peoples who throw objects into hot springs. So not everybody respect laws instored by the nationnal park service to save the inheritance.

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To conclue with all human activities have an impact on the park geysers and springs, but we can limit thit impact with simple actions. NUTS AIRLINES : Clement, Martin, Gauthier, Clelio


 Yellowstone from the first sientific expeditions from nowadays

Since his creation, Yellowstone national park has become a real tourism industry with about three millions visitors every year guided by 680 rangers in summer and about 280 in winter, using about ten of campgrounds and several hotels and visitors centers.

How and when were these accomodations built ?

The history of Yellowstone began in 1832 with the discovery of the geysers. Yellowstone became famous thanks to an scientific expedition in 1869, and the Nationale Park ( the first one of America) was created in 1872. « The first visitors were quite wealthy » according to Ericka H., a ranger, « only few people were able to afford it ». Those visitors were free and there were no law in the Park. They could hunt bisons, bring back some rocks and they didn’t really take care of the wildlife. That’s why in 1888 the US army was told to keep watch on the park. Boxes and accomodations were built such as the Old Faithful Inn in 1903. In 1916, roads, which enable people to drive cars, were built. Moreover a yellow bus has been available.

The same year, the National Park Service was created and supplied the US army in Yellowstone and other national parks in the USA. The growth of the parks continues today with the creation of a new visitor center which will soon open in the Old Faithful.

Thomas J., Maude, Justine and Tanguy

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 Why do people come to Yellowstone to see Old Faithful ?

Since 150 years, Old Faithful is fascinating human being. We asked different people in the park to know what they think about this question.

We asked Brian Janson, Ranger in the park. In his mind, people come here because there is a big density of geysers in the park. About the different nationalities of visitors in the park, he answered there were a lot of Americans, but also Europeans and Asians.

We went through the park to meet and ask some visitors.

Some people come to understand the formation and history of geysers here, so do Janice and George, 63 and 70 years old, from Texas.

Others just come to appreciate the beauty of the landscape in the Yellowstone Park, and especially here in Old Faithful, like George, 47 years old, from New Hampshire, and Rebecca and her husband, 27 and 36 years old, crossing USA from California to their house in Ohio, visiting all National Parks by the way.

As a conclusion, we can say that most visitors in the park come to see the beauty of nature, not especially interested in geyser’s formation.

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Et en attendant d’autres nouvelles, encore quelques images

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Rencontres de l’Excellence !
Chaque automne, les jeunes âgés de 13 à 22 ans bénéficient d’un séjour hors du commun durant lequel les participants et les participantes bénéficient d’ateliers de haut niveau habituellement réservés aux adultes. Pour en savoir, suivez ce lien dédiés aux Rencontres de l’Excellence


 Mercredi 25 août

Ce soir c’est Noël au Yellowstone, suite à une tempète de neige survenue le 25 aout 1900 ! Autant vous dire que les nuits sont glaciales, on a même failli avoir de la neige aussi.

Nous avons un peu quitté les geysers pour rejoindre le canyon, le lac de Yellowstone et le pays des ours. Plus que trois jours ici....

Voici les dernières interviews réalisées par les groupes


 Three questions to a Ranger : Jean Norricki

Q : What are the main spieces of animals we can see near Mammoth Hot Spring ?
A : [You can easily see] elks, you could [also] see bears, and the wolves crossing the road, in the day [...]. Some days you can`t get around because there are so many elks [but] other days you can`t see them.

Q : What are the most dangerous animals here ?
A : Actually elks are very dangerous [...] they look very calm and very quiet but they [can charge you]. Probably the bisons too, people think they are slow [but] they are very very fast, they can [attack groups]. Bears... you can see them but they hardly ever hurt people.

Q : When there is an animal near a road which could threaten people, how can you find it ?
A : Police and people working drive on the road, if there is an animal [tourists stop on the side of the road] so they ([police and people working]) call in, radio in but also know certain places where bears gonna be.


 American tourist : Bill hunbur and his wife

Q : Are the animals an important reason for your trip see ?
A : Yes we come to see the animals.

Q : What animals would you like to see ?
A : We have seen elks, a bear, a mule deer.


 Three questions to mister Wes Hardin, ranger to mammoth hot spring.

Q : How were the terrasses built ?
A : The snow, the rain and the ice slip under the ground and are heatted by volcano underneath the ground. The water start walking his way up into linestone. Gazes like hydrogen sulfate carbon dioxyde mix with the water. [...] The water goes away and the gaz can’t stay disolve anymore. Minerals built terrasses. When the water slows down it’s start building an edge, and edges become pools, and the pools get deeper and deeper as long as the water is flowing.

Q : How do the terrasses dry ?
A : The water is constently shifting directions. When it stops flowing no more color, no more roc is being deposit. And then it strats driing up the roc craps, grass grows, plants grow, trees grow.

Q : Are geysers and spring linked with terrasses ?
A : It’s the same basic hit source but they’re not link. For geysers, the water is much warmer. Mammoth hot spring’s water is not that hot, we have no geysers and the roc is different. The roc is made of carbon and silica.


 Questions to tourists

Q : Where do you come from ?
A : I come from America …

Q : And where exactly ?
A : In Illinois.

Q : For how long do you stay in Yellowstone ?
A : Nine days.

Q : What attracts you ?
A : The nature, just nature. It’s a beautiful park. I’m standing and it’s just gorgeous.

Thank you very much !

Interview of tourists, Ain and Helen Bist
Q : Where do you come from ?
A : We are from Nampthor in England.

Q : What attracts you in Yellowstone ?
A : It’s the first time we are able to do it. It’s tbhe nature, the wild life. We like animals, all things wild animals.

Q : For how long do you stay ?
A : It’s the third day. We are doing a 3.5 month travel in USA. We are travelling all the national parks. We started from Tamper,we crossed Michigan, then Minnesota, South Dakota,then we are crossing Oregon and we finish at Seattle.

Q : Have you seen bears ?
A : No we haven’t seen any bears today but we hope to seen one today. We have seen bears when we went here before.

Interview of tourists, Mrs Colter, Sarah and Steven, Mrs and Mr Gunther
Q : What is special in Yellowstone National Park ?
A : Its quite famous. (Mrs Colter is the wife of the fourst descendant of the white man who discovered Yellowstone.) We travel more outside the United States than inside that’s the raison why we are in the park to see a little more about the USA

Q : What do you think about security distances ?
A : I don’t know how fast can a bear run ! I’m not sure. I probably think it’s enough but if I saw one... I probably think it’s not.

Q : What are your relationship with the wildlife
A : It’s their park and we are the visitors. We have to respect them.


 Samedi 28 août

Et voilà, c’est déjà fini. Ce matin à l’aube, 13 participants sont repartis pour la France et demain, dimanche 29, les 2 derniers suivront avec leur éducateur, Valérian.
Malgré un peu de pluie le dernier soir, tout s’est bien terminé, avec un anniversaire et une fondue au chocolat, de quoi digérer toutes les merveilles de ce séjour.

Nous n’avons pas chomé pendant les derniers jours, et voilà donc les derniers reportages de l’équipe, à découvrir en exclu !

Bonne fin d’été à tous
Valérian


 Fumseck’s rebirth

By Maude, Justine, Tanguy and Thomas J

Walking through a burnt forest, makes you meet a strange landscape. Burnt trees and black soil gives the place a gloomy athmosphere.
Our forest, let’s call it Fumseck, had been burnt one year ago, but scars still remain. Fallen or treez trees, look like the end of the world.
But, it isn’t. If you look carefuly at the ground you will see small plants. Trees hide a lot of actors for the rebirth of the forest.
In a century, a new forest and a new fire will restart the cycle of life.
One year before, a scourge plagues theYellowstone Fumseck forest, severely striken by lightenings. A panic wind sweeps through the fauna. Terrified animals run away, looking for shelters. As an injured elk looks at the teared sky, lightenings burn trees and plants alike. Fire spreads through Fumseck forest, with the help of the wind. As hundreds of other animals, our elk went through the severe drought of the past months, and the lack of rainfor the past four months.
Though, fire in Yellowstone has little to do with apocalipse.

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An arnica flower after a one year old fire. The arnica can survive to small fires and can easily and quickly grow from its roots

Fumseck forest burns and dies, only to be borns again from its ashes. Each fire is the beginning of a new cycle. Soon, Arnica flowers will grow. Lodgepole pines will quickly follow, thanks to pine cones called seritunous, which free their seeds when they are burnt. These seeds are then spread by squirrels and the lodgepole pines of Fumseck forest will reach ten feet ( three meters) in 15 to 25 years.
Then Fumseck forest starts a process that will lead to a fire in 300-400 years. When the trees are tall enough, the sunlight can no longer reach lower branches which are going to die. Other disturbances such as windstorms and bark beetles plague Fumseck forest. All these evens enable the sunlight to reach the ground again.

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Dead trees from the fire of 1988. That year 36 per cent of yellowstone forest burnt

New trees, grass and shrubs grow attracting a lot of animals. Fumseck is now ready to burn again : if a surface fire starts young trees and shrubs will turn it into a understory fire then a crown fire.


 Elk ahead the gun

By Cleliot, Valerian, Martin and Chloe

The year was 1872. Legend has it that in 17 month, William Cody, aka Buffalo Bill, killed 2860 bisons.
It was a time when hunting was allowed in the area of Yellowstone Lake. Buffao Bill used to be a great friend of the local natives, who considered him a skilled hunter.

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In 1868, when the railway arrivede. Cody started to hunt to feed the workers. But worse, after that, government asked him to kill bisons to starve the amerindians populations...
Now days, you can’t hunt in the Yellowstone park, and all species are protected.

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Around the park, hunting is allowed but needs a special license. For each specie, one is allowed to hunt one head in two week, every year. Even around the park, wolf and bisons are protected.
Poaching in the park can cost up to a 50,000 US$ fine, and up to 5 years in prison, and a suppression of hunting license for 5 years, or forever. “Poaching is useless. It’s stupid. To hunt one beast a year is large enough. We don’t need to kill more animals... “ estimates Gary, a local hunter with a deer hunting license, and a hunting goods seller.

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The “Game and Fish Department “ acts as a kind of police for animals of the park. Workers from the “Game and Fish “ work with rangers to catch poachers. They hold guns and have the same authority than policemen in the streets. There is also an alert line you can call if you see someone poaching.


 Pelicans in Yellowstone Lake

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By Karl, Gauthier and Thomas B

In the Yellowstone Lake, among all US mountain lakes, lives one of the eight species of pelicans in the world, the American White Pelican.

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There, the white pelicans find cutthroat trouts, their favourite food, who live and proliferate near the surface of the lake’s freshwater, but they also eat every fish they find. They feed in cooperative groups.
This migrator bird nests in US mountain lakes from May, when it arrives from California, and births take place, until September.
With up to 400 birds, Molly Islands are the only places where American white pelicans colonies actually nest in Yellowstone Lake. Pelicans need to nest and live away from human presence. No visitor is allowed around these islands.
Since they don’t have any predator, they are more likely to continue to come here for a lonmg time.

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 Interview with a ranger at Fishing Bridge Visitor Center

Q : Where do pelicans nest at Yellowstone Lake ?
A : They nest at Molly Islands where the babies are born. They usually come here by May, and they go back in August.

Q : Where do they come from ?
A : They come here from California and then leave in September.

Q : What kind of fishes do they eat in the lake ?
A : They usually will eat cutthroat trouts because they are surface fishes, but they eat everything they can.

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Q : Are there other lakes in the world inhabited by pelicans ?
A : About all US mountain lakes are inhabited by pelicans.

Q : What are pelican’s predators ?
A : They don’t really have, they are very large, and hard to injury because they can fly away.


 Is Yellowstone National Park going to run out of water ?

By Bastien, Julie, Francois and Clement

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According to the Shoshones, the first inabitants of the Yellowstone area, hydrological phenomenons are caused by the gods. Shoshones believed that Yellowstone River and the Yellowstone Lake had been created because of Ezeppa, the coyote god, who spilled the water and the fish which were in the magical basket of an old woman.
But nowadays, with global warming going on, may the basket soon be empty and may the famous geysers cease their activity ?

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Upper Fall, according to the Shoshones it is the result of a dam built by Ezeppa when he tried to stop the water spilling from the basket

It’s not so much about the basket anymore, but about the glaciers in the Rocky Mountains, along with rain, and many tributaries.

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Yellowstone River, the most important river of Yellowstone National Park

According to Laurie Householder, a ranger working in Fishing Bay, there is no actual risk of the lake drying, as it is very deep.
So, for the moment, the « basket » is not really threatened. However, she thinks that global warming may increase the evaporation of the lake and its tributaries. So the lake and the second part of the river may become less deep and large.

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A model of the lake, showing with dark blue the deepest places. The deepest one is 315 feet deep

That’s why Mrs Householder thinks that the Shoshone’s basket isn’t going to lose its water but its fish. Indeed, many fish go higher along the river, where they often were born, to reproduce. If the tributaries are not deep enough, the fish won’t be able to reach this place. So some spicies of fish may disappear.
Mrs Householder estimates that, in the very long term the lake might disappear if the glaciers entierely melted, but there is no clue implying that at the moment.
Part of the water of Yellowstone River seeps underground, and, as the whole areas seats on a hot spot, most of this groundwater become geysers, or other hydrothermal phenomenons. So, the next question is, could the geysers be affected ?
For Mrs Householder, the answer is no, or at least not in the short-term.
Indeed, seepage is a very slow process. It takes hundreds of years for water to reach the geyser’s plumbing system. So even if tomorrow there were no more ice and no more rain, the geysers would keep working for centuries, so tourists don’t have to worry.

Rencontres de l’Excellence !
Chaque automne, les jeunes âgés de 13 à 22 ans bénéficient d’un séjour hors du commun durant lequel les participants et les participantes bénéficient d’ateliers de haut niveau habituellement réservés aux adultes. Pour en savoir, suivez ce lien dédiés aux Rencontres de l’Excellence

 Quelques photos pour finir tout ça !

(Photos de Objectif Scieces International/Valerian MAZATAUD)

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Rencontres de l’Excellence !
Chaque automne, les jeunes âgés de 13 à 22 ans bénéficient d’un séjour hors du commun durant lequel les participants et les participantes bénéficient d’ateliers de haut niveau habituellement réservés aux adultes. Pour en savoir, suivez ce lien dédiés aux Rencontres de l’Excellence




,
date de publication : 2 juin 2010,
date de dernière mise à jour : 11 juillet 2011


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